lunes, 10 de agosto de 2015

Reported Speech... Rules for a better understanding


 Reported Speech - Direct Speech and Indirect Speech
Direct Speech
Direct speech with quotation marks: "l learn at school".

Reported Speech Speech:
Reported Speech: He said he worked in a bank.
The tenses, word-order, pronouns are different from those in the direct speech sentence.
Direct SpeechReported Speech
Jake says: "I bought some DVDs."Jake says that he bought some DVDs.

Introduction Simple Present - English

Direct SpeechReported Speech
Susan saysI want an ice-cream.Susan says that she wants an ice-cream.

Reported Speech Speech: Change of tenses

IntroductionTenses Direct SpeechTenses Reported Speech
Ann said:want ice-cream.Ann said that she wanted ice-cream.
Simple PastSimple PresentSimple Past
Simple PastSimple Past
Present PerfectPast Perfect
Past Perfect
Simple Pastwillwould
Reported Speech: 'to be'
Simple Pastam/is/arewas/were
Simple Pastwas/were
have/has been
had been
had been

The Past Perfect Tense does not change in the Reported Speech.

Questions - Reported Speech English

Do you like Jake?
She asked me if/whether I liked Jake.

Questions with questions words-  Reported Speech

Who is your friend?”
She asked me who my friend was.

Commands Reported Speech - English

“Sit down!” - The teacher told them to sit down.
“Drink a lot of tea!” - He told us to drink a lot of tea.

Changes - Reported Speech

The tenses, word-order, pronouns are different from those in the direct speech sentence.

Change of pronouns - Change of place and time - Reported Speech

 Direct SpeechReported Speech
(Reported speech)
Change of pronounsI
⇒ he/she
⇒ they
⇒ his/her
⇒ my
⇒ their
⇒ him/her
⇒ them
Change of place and timehere
this morning
next week
next month
⇒ there
⇒ that day
⇒ that morning
⇒ the day before
⇒ the next day
⇒ the following week
⇒ the following month

Try some exercises here!

Try some NEGATIVE exercises here

Try some MIXED exercises here

To visit the ORIGINAL page click here!

Passive Voice... A brief explanation...

Hello Dear Students,

Here a -under construction- explanation about PASSIVE VOICE


The passive is a grammar construction that uses the auxiliary to be and the past participle of a verb:.
  • My camera has been stolen.
  • The Mona Lisa was painted in 1503.
  • We are being followed.
  • She was seriously injured in the car crash.
  • You will be told when to come.
  • The school was built just after the war.
  • The ski race has been cancelled due to lack of snow.
The passive has two main functions:
Firstly, we use the passive when we are more interested inwhat happened than who did it. For example, in saying My camera has been stolen the speaker is conveying important information about his camera. The camera is the focus of interest, and so the speaker has made it the subject of the sentence. He does not know or care who took it. Similarly, in the sentence The Mona Lisa was painted in 1503 the speaker wants to tells us when the painting was done. She is not interested in telling us who painted it, or maybe she expects us to already know that it was painted by Leonardo da Vinci.
The passive can be used in all tenses. The following list has examples of the most common uses:
  • The classrooms are cleaned every afternoon. (present simple)
  • A new road is being built behind the school. (present continuous)
  • The boy was seen spraying paint on the wall. (past simple)
  • I was late because the road was being repaired. (past continuous)
  • The car thief has been caught. (present perfect)
  • The painting had been damaged during the war. (past perfect)
  • You will be shown how to do it. (future)
  • It must be done. (modal verb + simple infinitive)
  • She likes to be praised when she does well. (infinitive withto)
  • I hate being watched when I'm working. (gerund)
Note: In all the above sentences, it is not important to the speaker that s/he tells us who (e.g., who cleans the classrooms, who is building the road behind the school, who saw the boy spraying paint). Important is: what (or when, why, how).
The second important reason why we use the passive is to follow the typical English sentence pattern of Given-New. This means putting given or old information at the beginning of the sentence (as the subject), and following it with new information (as the predicate). Example:
The second world war began in September 1939. It was caused by the invasion of Poland by German troops. At this time Poland was governed by the Polish Socialist Party.
Here is the alternative, putting the new information before the given or old, and using the active not passive voice:
The second world war began in September 1939. The invasion of Poland by German troops caused it. The Polish Socialist Party governed Poland at this time.
Most native speakers of English find this kind of text unusual and hard to read.

A BIG practice on Adjectives and other things

Hello dear Students,

Here we have for you a BIG practice for you to understand the use of adjectives.

Adjective for describing personality
What do these words mean?
Pen down your own definition, Discuss with a classmate, and then look in the dictionary for the correct meaning:

My own definition
My classmate’s definition
Dictionary’s definition

























Visit the original link:  Click here

Adjectives exercises:
What type are you? Matching exercise. Click here!

Describing people Physical traits (1): Choose the best response to complete the following sentences: Click here!

Describing people Physical traits (2): Choose the best response to complete the following sentences: Click here!

Personality adjectives. For each sentence, choose the best word or phrase Click here!

Interactive book for physical description: Click here!

Personality Mix – Matching exercise: Click here!

Personality:  Matching exercise: Click here!

Personality expressions:  Matching up the expressions:  Click here!

Personality Definitions:  Matching up the definitions with the words: Click here!

Personality matching Quiz:  Do the matching up:  Click here!

People and Personality:  Matching up the definitions with the words: Click here!

Adjective Describing Personality:  Matching up the definitions with the words: Click here!

Interactive Book PersonalityClick here!

Personality adjectives:Click here!

Much more to practice: Click here!

Reflexive Pronouns theoryClick here!

Reflexive Pronouns ONE:  Click here

Reflexive Pronouns TWO:  Click here!

Reflexive Pronoun Quiz ONE:  Click here!

Reflexive Pronoun Quiz TWO: Click here!

(Much more activities to do, go here: Click here!

Linking words theory:  Click here!

Linking words exercise 1Click here!

Linking words quiz 1Click here!

Linking words quiz 2Click here!

Linking words CONTRAST:  Click here for Contrast

Linking words ADDITION:  Click here for Addition!

Linking words CAUSE AND RESULTClick here for Cause and Result

Linking words TIMEClick here for Time!

Linking words many exercisesFor more linking word activities, click here